lunedì 23 ottobre 2017

inglese - the indefinite aritcle

inglese - the indefinite article


The indefinite article ia  A oppure AN

The form A is used before a word beginning with a consonant ore a vowel sounded like a consonant :

 a man    a table  a university         a useful thing

The forma an is used before wod beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or words  beginning with a mute h

an hour    an honourable man   an elephant  an apple 

It is the same for all genders.

The indefinite article A oppure AN is used  :

 a) Before a singular countable noun which is used as en example of a class of things :

a car must be insured = all cars /any car must be insured
a child needs love = all child need/ any child needs love

b)  Before a singular noun which is contable when it is mentioned for the first time and represents no particular person or thing :

I need a Holiday

They live in a bungalow

there is a policeman at the door

c) with a noun complement. This includes  names of professions

He is a doctor 
He become an actor

d)  In certain numerical expressions

a couple
a dozen
half a dozen
an eighth
a quarter
a score
a hundred
a thousand
a million
a lot of
a great many
a great deal of

e) In expressions of price speed ratio ecc.

5 p a kilo
£ 1 a metre
sixty kilometres an hour
10 p a dozen
four time a day

f)  With few and little

a few = a small number or what the speaker considers  a small number
a little = a small amount or what the speaker considers a small amount

few and little can also be used without article but then have an almosto negative meaning and can usually  be replaced by hardly  any

We had little time for amusement implies that we were Always busy.

g) In exclamations before singular countable nouns

what a hot day
what a pretty girl
such a pity

h)   A  can be placed before mr mrs and miss  + surname

a mr Smith  =   a man called Smith

The indefinite article is not used :

a)  Before  plural nouns

The indefinite article has no plural form. Therefore the plural of a dog is dogs.

b) before uncontable nouns

The following nouns are singular and and uncountable in English :

advice   information    news    baggage     luggage   furniture

They  are often preceded by some any a little  a lot of a piece of etc.

I'll give you a piece of advice
you need some more forniture

knowledge is also considered uncontable but when used in particulare sense take the article

a knowledge of languages is Always useful

hair  (all the hair on one's head ) is considered uncountable but if we consider each hair separately we say one hair  two hairs

experience meaning practice in doing somthing is uncountable.
But an experience meaning something which happens to someone  is countable :

He had an exciting esperience (an adventure) last night.

Materials glass, wood, iron, stone, paper, cloth, wine, coffee, tea, etc., are considered uncountable. But many of these nouns can also  denote one particular thing,and then take an article :

window are made of glass

but I've got a paper (newspaper).

c) Before abstract nouns : beauty happiness fear hope Death etc.
except when they are used in particular sense

he was pale with fear
Some children suffer from a fear of the dark

d) Before names of meals except when preceded by an adjective  :

we have breakfast at eight
he gave us a good breakfast

The article is also used when it is a special meal given to celebrate something or in someone's honour :

I was invited to dinner (at their house in the ordinary way)
I was invited to a dinner given to welcome the new Ambassador.

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